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List of Maps and Figures


  • Creole Identity and Postcolonial Diversity
  • Ethnic versus Transethnic Identity
  • National Identity in the Context of Ethnic and Transethnic References
  • The City as Locus and Focus
  • Categories of Identification and Social Discourses as Objects of Observation and Analysis
  • Notes on Field Research

Chapter 1. Creole Identity in Postcolonial Context

  • Creole Terminology at the Conceptual Crossroads of History and Ideology
  • Creolization and Creole Identity Beyond the Caribbean
  • Towards a Comparative Concept of Creole Identity
  • Indigenization and Ethnogenesis as Criteria of Creolization
  • Creoleness versus (Post-)creole Continuum
  • The CvP Model: Creolization versus Pidginization
  • The Pidgin Potential of Creole Identity for Postcolonial Nation-building
  • Creole Ambivalences

Chapter 2. Jakarta, Batavia, Betawi

  • Cityscape and City Dwellers
  • Historical Beginnings: Sunda Kelapa, Jayakarta, Batavia
  • Social Organization and Interethnic Relationships in Batavia
  • Creolization and the Emergence of the Betawi
  • Social Marginalization of the Betawi
  • The (Re-)discovery of the Betawi: Objectives and Context of State Sponsorship

Chapter 3. Orang Betawi versus Orang Jakarta

  • Discourses, Definitions, Dichotomies
  • Betawi (asli) versus pendatang
  • Betawi versus Betawi Asli: Ethnic References with and without ‘Asli’
  • Betawi as Jakarta Asli
  • The Pidgin Potential of Betawi Culture and Identity
  • Orang Jakarta as a Category of Urban Identification
  • Creolization of Jakartan Identity?
  • Tradition and Modernity in the Relationship between Orang Betawi and Orang Jakarta … and a Miss and Mister Jakarta Pageant

Chapter 4. Suku bangsa Betawi: Integration and Differentiation of Ethnic Identity

  • The Inner and Outer circle of the Betawi
  • Betawi Kota: the (Political) Spearhead of the Betawi
  • Betawi Pinggir: the Guardians of ‘True Islam’
  • Betawi Udik: the Guardians of ‘True Tradition’
  • Betawi Kota, Pinggir and Udik: Integration through Differentiation and Diversification from Within
  • The Arabic Dimension of Betawi-ness
  • Tugu: Exotics of Enclave?
  • Kampung Sawah: The (Christian) Betawi in the Paddy Field
  • Bangsawan Betawi: About the Invention of a Betawi Aristocracy
  • Batak Going Betawi, Or: What Is a Batak Betawi?

Chapter 5. Betawi versus Peranakan (Chinese)

  • Conceptual Disentanglement
  • Cina Benteng: the First Peranakan
  • Between Privilege and Expulsion: The Chinese in Batavia and Early Postcolonial Jakarta
  • The Repression of the Chinese during the Suharto Era
  • Recent Developments: ‘Free the Dragon’ versus ‘Be(com)ing Betawi’
  • The Betawi’s Appetite for Incorporation

Chapter 6. Orang Betawi versus Orang Indonesia: On the Connection between Ethnic Diversity and National Unity

  • Pancasila and Bhinneka Tunggal Ika as Core Principles of National Identity
  • The Betawi as a Representation of Bhinneka Tunggal Ika: On the Meaning of ‘Diversity of Origin’ for ‘Unity in Diversity’
  • National Meanings of Betawi Indigeneity
  • Betawi-ization versus Javanization of the National Centre
  • Betawi contraorang kompeni: Postcolonial Constructions of Anticolonial Heroism
  • Orang Betawi and Orang Indonesia as Interconnected Categories of Identification

Chapter 7. Betawi Politics of Identity and Difference

  • Betawi Goes Politics: The First ‘Betawi untuk Gubernur’ Campaign
  • Indigeneity in the Production of Authenticity and Commitment
  • Creole Identity in the Production of Commonalities
  • Islam In and Out of Politics
  • Jakarta between National and Local Representation
  • Social Margins Going Ethno-politics
  • Betawi as a Social Class and as Urban Identification

Conclusion: Towards an Open End


Creole Identity in Postcolonial Indonesia

Jacqueline Knörr

236 pages, 15 illus., bibliog., index

ISBN  978-1-78238-268-3 Hb Published (March 2014)

eISBN 978-1-78238-269-0 eBook